Low doses of antimalarials can be used.  Orally ingested chloroquine is completely absorbed in the gut and is preferentially concentrated in the liver, spleen, and kidneys.  They work by removing excess porphyrins from the liver via increasing the excretion rate by forming a coordination complex with the iron center of the porphyrin as well as an intramolecular hydrogen bond between a propionate side chain of the porphyrin and the protonated quinuclidine nitrogen atom of either alkaloid.  Due to the presence of the chlorine atom, the entire complex is more water soluble allowing the kidneys to preferentially remove it from the blood stream and expel it through urination.    It should be noted that chloroquine treatment can induce porphyria attacks within the first couple of months of treatment due to the mass mobilization of porphyrins from the liver into the blood stream.  Complete remission can be seen within 6–12 months as each dose of antimalarial can only remove a finite amount of porphyrins and there are generally decades of accumulation to be cleared. Originally, higher doses were used to treat the condition but are no longer recommended because of liver toxicity.    Finally, due to the strong association between PCT and Hepatitis C, the treatment of Hepatitis C (if present) is vital to the effective treatment of PCT. Chloroquine , hydroxychloroquine , and venesection are typically employed in the management strategy.