There is a more recent school of thought that indicates activation of the androgen receptors in the liver itself (aggravated by the potency of the steroid), and inducement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are causative factors in the liver toxicity of a given oral anabolic steroid – and this may be true, because something like methyltrienolone is incredibly potent at lower doses than any other steroid, but is very liver toxic, while Anavar (oxandrolone) isn’t very liver toxic at all, and requires significantly higher doses for users to experience tangible results.
1. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002 Oct;35(4):350-2. Androgenic/Anabolic steroid-induced toxic hepatitis.
Stimac D, Milić S, Dintinjana RD, Kovac D, Ristić S.
2. Clin Ther. 2001 Jun;23(6):789-801; discussion 771. Review of oxymetholone: a 17alpha-alkylated anabolic-androgenic AM1, Fultz O, Monberg MJ, Vootkur A, Pharmd.
3. HIV Hotline. 1998 Dec;8(5-6):10-1. Does the choice of alpha-AAS really make a difference? Mutzebaugh C.
4. Minerva Med. 1971 Jun 27;62(51):2605-11. [Hepatotoxicity of anabolic steroids]. Rozman C, Urbano A, Galera H.
5. J Gastroenterol 2000;35(7):557-62, Multiple hepatic adenomas caused by long-term administration of androgenic steroids for aplastic anemia in association with familial adenomatous polyposis. Nakao A, Sakagami K, Nakata Y, Komazawa K, Amimoto T, Nakashima K, Isozaki H, Takakura N, Tanaka N.
6. Medical Hypotheses 93 (2016) 150–153. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity. Peter Bond, William Llewellyn, Peter Van Mol
7. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Feb;31(2):243-50, Rat liver lysosomal and mitochondrial activities are modified by anabolic-androgenic steroids. Molano F, Saborido A, Delgado J, Moran M, Megias A.
8. Lancet 1979 Nov 24;2(8152):1120-3, Hepatic angiosarcoma associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Falk H, Thomas LB, Popper H, Ishak KG.
9. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1995 Aug;33(4):187-95, Toxic effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in primary rat hepatic cell cultures. Welder AA, Robertson JW, Melchert RB.
10. Arch Toxicol 1999 Nov;73(8-9):465-72, Evaluation of acute and chronic hepatotoxic effects exerted by anabolic-androgenic steroid stanozolol in adult male rats. Boada LD, Zumbado M, Torres S, Lopez A, Diaz-Chico BN, Cabrera JJ, Luzardo OP.
11. Clin J Sport Med 1999 Jan;9(1):34-9, Anabolic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity: is it overstated? Dickerman RD, Pertusi RM, Zachariah NY, Dufour DR, McConathy WJ.
12. Int J Sports Med 1996 Aug;17(6):429-33, Body composition, cardiovascular risk factors and liver function in long-term androgenic-anabolic steroids using bodybuilders three months after drug withdrawal. Hartgens F, Kuipers H, Wijnen JA, Keizer HA.