Humans also influence the carbon cycle indirectly by changing the terrestrial and oceanic biosphere  . Over the past several centuries, direct and indirect human-caused land use and land cover change (LUCC) has led to the loss of biodiversity , which lowers ecosystems' resilience to environmental stresses and decreases their ability to remove carbon from the atmosphere. More directly, it often leads to the release of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. Deforestation for agricultural purposes removes forests, which hold large amounts of carbon, and replaces them, generally with agricultural or urban areas. Both of these replacement land cover types store comparatively small amounts of carbon, so that the net product of the process is that more carbon stays in the atmosphere.
Of the two, lateral dynamics has proven to be the more complicated, requiring three-dimensional , multibody dynamic analysis with at least two generalized coordinates to analyze. At a minimum, two coupled, second-order differential equations are required to capture the principal motions.  Exact solutions are not possible, and numerical methods must be used instead.  Competing theories of how bikes balance can still be found in print and online. On the other hand, as shown in later sections, much longitudinal dynamic analysis can be accomplished simply with planar kinetics and just one coordinate.